Wellbeing is also a complex concept. Firstly, it refers to the personal experiences of a person (Vos et al., 2010) and a subjective feeling of how this person evaluates their life (Busseri and Sadava, 2010). Therefore, physiological and psychological differences among persons can account for some part of the variance in emotions and happiness (Busseri and Sadava, 2010; and Diener et al. 1999). Second, wellbeing can be difficult to be measured, most particularly in people with intellectual disability (Mcgillivray, et al. 2008).
Thirdly, the well-being in people with intellectual disability can be approached and studied from a number of different perspectives. Some examples found in literature focused on people with intellectual disability to illustrate are: the relevance given to the dimensions of emotional well-being and self-determination in older adults with intellectual disability (Sexton, et al. 2016); the differences of levels of subjective well-being of adults living -or not- with a family (Powell et al. 2018); the impact of personal resources on the well-being of ageing people with intellectual disabilities (Lehmann et al. 2012); the role of emotional competences in the subjective well-being (Rey et al. 2013); and the relevance of the support services provided to older women with intellectual disabilities (Strnadová, et al. 2015).
According to theoretical model which guides TRIADE 2.0 (Quality of Life), well-being is formed by three dimensions:
- Emotional well-being (Safety and security, positive experiences, contentment, self-concept and lack of stress);
- Physical well-being (Health and nutrition status, recreation and leisure); and
- Material well-being (Financial status, employment status, housing status and possessions).
Busseri, Michael & Sadava, Stan. (2010). A Review of the Tripartite Structure of Subjective Well-Being: Implications for Conceptualization, Operationalization, Analysis, and Synthesis. Personality and social psychology review : an official journal of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc. 15. 290-314. 10.1177/1088868310391271.
Diener E., Suh E. M., Lucas R. E. & Smith H. E. (1999) Subjective well-being: three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin 125, 276–302.
Lehmann, Birthe & Bos, Arjan & Rijken, Mieke & Cardol, M. & Peters, Gjalt-Jorn & Kok, Gerjo & Curfs, L. (2012). Ageing with an intellectual disability: The impact of personal resources on well-being. Journal of intellectual disability research: JIDR. 57. 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2012.01607.x.
Mcgillivray, Jane & Lau, A. & Cummins, Robert & Davey, Gareth. (2008). The Utility of the Personal Wellbeing Index Intellectual Disability Scale in an Australian Sample. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities. 22. 276 - 286. 10.1111/j.1468-3148.2008.00460.x. 016/j.ridd.2010.04.021.
Rey, Lourdes & Extremera, Natalio & DURAN, Auxiliadora & Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita. (2013). Subjective Quality of Life of People with Intellectual Disabilities: The Role of Emotional Competence on Their Subjective Well-Being. Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities : JARID. 10.1111/jar.12015.
Sexton, Eithne & O'Donovan, Mary-Ann & Mulryan, Niamh & Mccallion, Philip & Mccarron, Mary. (2016). Whose quality of life? A comparison of measures of self-determination and emotional wellbeing in research with older adults with and without intellectual disability?. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability. 41. 1-14. 10.3109/13668250.2016.1213377.
Strnadová, Iva & Cumming, Therese & Knox, Marie & Parmenter, Trevor & Lee, Hee. (2015). Perspectives on life, wellbeing, and ageing by older women with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability. 40. 10.3109/13668250.2015.1043873.
Vos, Pieter & De Cock, Paul & Petry, Katja & Van den Noortgate, Wim & Maes, Bea. (2010). What makes them feel like they do? Investigating the subjective well-being in people with severe and profound disabilities. Research in developmental disabilities. 31. 1623-32. 10.1.